MITRE ATT&CK is a globally accessible, open-source knowledge base of adversarial tactics, techniques, and common knowledge that provides a comprehensive understanding of cyber threats. Developed by the non-profit organization MITRE, ATT&CK stands for Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge.

The ATT&CK framework is designed to help security professionals:

  • Understand the behavior and objectives of adversaries.
  • Identify the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) that attackers use.
  • Develop effective strategies for detecting, mitigating, and responding to cyber threats.
  • Share threat intelligence and best practices across organizations and industries.

The primary goal of the ATT&CK framework is to enable organizations to better defend against cyber threats by providing a structured, consistent, and actionable understanding of how adversaries operate. This knowledge base can be used by cybersecurity professionals in various roles, such as threat analysts, incident responders, security architects, and product developers, to enhance their organization’s security posture and resilience.

The ATT&CK framework is not a one-size-fits-all solution or a prescriptive set of rules. Instead, it is a dynamic, evolving resource that can be adapted and customized to meet the unique needs of each organization. By using the ATT&CK framework as a foundation, security professionals can develop tailored strategies that address their organization’s specific threat landscape, risk appetite, and security objectives.

History of MITRE ATT&CK

The ATT&CK framework was born out of MITRE’s ongoing research into cybersecurity, which dates back to the 1990s. In 2013, they began developing a comprehensive catalog of adversary behavior, which would later become the ATT&CK matrix. The first version of the framework was released in 2015, focusing on Microsoft Windows systems. Over time, the ATT&CK framework has expanded to cover various platforms, such as Linux, macOS, mobile devices, and the cloud. Today, it is widely recognized as an essential tool for cybersecurity professionals.

John Lambert, Distinguished Engineer at Microsoft and General Manager of the Threat Intelligence Center, once said, “ATT&CK is to cybersecurity what the periodic table was to chemistry.” This quote encapsulates the transformative impact of the framework on the cybersecurity landscape.

Structure of the ATT&CK Framework

The ATT&CK framework is organized into a matrix that maps adversary tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) across 14 different categories or “tactics.” Each tactic represents a specific goal that an attacker may have, such as initial access, execution, or persistence. Within each tactic, there are multiple techniques that describe specific actions an attacker may take to achieve their goal. Each technique is further broken down into sub-techniques, which provide granular details on how the technique can be executed.

For example, one of the tactics is “Privilege Escalation,” which involves an attacker gaining higher privileges on a system to perform unauthorized actions. A technique under this tactic is “Bypass User Account Control,” which describes methods an attacker might use to bypass the built-in security feature in Windows systems. This technique is further divided into sub-techniques like “Fileless UAC Bypass” and “DLL Hijacking.”

In addition to techniques and sub-techniques, the ATT&CK framework also includes information on the platforms affected, data sources that can be used for detection, and mitigation strategies. This comprehensive approach allows security teams to develop more effective defenses and better understand the threat landscape.

Real-World Applications of MITRE ATT&CK

The ATT&CK framework has been embraced by cybersecurity professionals across various industries, government agencies, and academic institutions. It is often used for:

  • Threat Intelligence: By studying the TTPs of known adversaries, security teams can better understand their motives, tactics, and potential targets. This knowledge can be used to develop proactive defenses and enhance threat detection capabilities.
  • Incident Response: During a security incident, the ATT&CK framework can help analysts identify the tactics, techniques, and procedures used by the attacker, which can guide the response and remediation efforts.
  • Security Testing and Evaluation: The ATT&CK framework can be used as a basis for creating realistic attack scenarios, helping organizations assess their security posture and identify weaknesses.
  • Security Training and Education: The framework serves as an excellent resource for teaching cybersecurity concepts and techniques, both to aspiring professionals and to those looking to deepen their expertise.
  • Security Product Development: Vendors and developers can use the ATT&CK framework to ensure that their products and services effectively address the threats and vulnerabilities outlined in the matrix, leading to more robust and comprehensive security solutions.

Expert Opinions on MITRE ATT&CK

Many industry experts consider the ATT&CK framework to be an invaluable tool for enhancing cybersecurity practices. Let’s take a look at some of their insights:

  • Katie Nickels, Director of Intelligence at Red Canary, says, “MITRE ATT&CK has been a game-changer for our industry, providing a common language for defenders to discuss adversary behavior. By enabling more efficient communication and collaboration, the ATT&CK framework empowers security teams to more effectively combat threats.”
  • David Bianco, a security expert and one of the early contributors to the ATT&CK framework, highlights its importance for incident response: “By mapping incident data to ATT&CK, organizations can better understand the full scope of an attack and develop a more targeted response plan. This can lead to faster remediation and reduced impact from breaches.”
  • SANS Institute, a leading cybersecurity research and education organization, states, “MITRE ATT&CK has rapidly become the go-to framework for understanding adversary tactics and techniques. It’s a critical resource for any organization that takes cybersecurity seriously.”

Challenges and Future Directions

Despite its many advantages, the ATT&CK framework is not without its challenges. As the threat landscape evolves, the framework must continually adapt to stay current. This requires regular updates and contributions from a diverse community of security professionals. Additionally, the sheer volume of information in the framework can be overwhelming, making it challenging for some organizations to know where to start or how to prioritize their efforts.

To address these challenges, MITRE and the security community are constantly working to improve the ATT&CK framework. Some of the ongoing efforts include:

  • Expanding the scope of the framework to cover new platforms and technologies, such as Industrial Control Systems (ICS) and the Internet of Things (IoT).
  • Encouraging collaboration and information sharing among security researchers, vendors, and organizations to ensure the framework remains up-to-date and relevant.
  • Developing tools and resources to help organizations better understand and prioritize the most significant threats and vulnerabilities.
  • Integrating the ATT&CK framework with other cybersecurity standards and frameworks, such as the NIST Cybersecurity Framework and the Center for Internet Security (CIS) Critical Security Controls.


The MITRE ATT&CK framework has emerged as a vital resource for cybersecurity professionals worldwide. Its comprehensive approach to mapping adversary behavior has helped organizations better understand, predict, and respond to cyber threats. By providing a common language for discussing attacks and sharing threat intelligence, ATT&CK has fostered increased collaboration and innovation within the cybersecurity community.

As we move forward, it is crucial for organizations to stay informed and engaged with the ATT&CK framework to ensure they are well-equipped to face the ever-evolving world of cybersecurity threats. By integrating the framework into their security practices, organizations can better protect their assets, minimize the impact of breaches, and maintain the trust of their customers and stakeholders.